Nature has created an uncountable number of molecular entities that become the source of drug developments around the world. Such molecules are used as effective drugs for multiple disease indications and also for valuable bioactive agents. Natural products have been used for healing purposes traditionally throughout the world. Though bioactive natural products are using as herbal drugs for ages, their application as isolated chemical compounds for modern drug discovery and development started from the 19th century. Since then, plants have become the source of medicinally active compounds that are used to drive drugs directly or indirectly. Plants with ethnopharmacological background have been uses as the primary source for the early discovery of drugs . Different drugs are extracted from plants are Paclitaxel from Taxus brevifolia, Artemisinin from Artemisia annua, Silymarin from Silybum marianum, and similarly Cannabidiol (CBD) from Cannabis sativa ssp Sativa.
It is a phytocannabinoid derived from Cannabis species. Cannabidiol was discovered in 1940 and it is also known as CBD. It possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, antineoplastic, and analgesic activities . This compound is present in both plants i.e. Cannabis and hemp. Chemically active compounds that are found in cannabis plants are known as a cannabinoid. Cannabinoids include CBD, CBG, CBN, and THC. The two well understood and commonly used cannabinoids are CBD and THC (tetrahydrocannabinol). Both of these compounds uniquely interact with the human body.
CBD extracted from the hemp plant produces a less psychoactive effect in comparison to the CBD extracted from marijuana because of the THC percentage in the compound.
Cannabis sativa ssp. sativa (Hemp Plant):
Cannabis sativa ssp. sativa belongs to the family Cannabaceae and it is commonly known as the hemp plant. It is an aromatic, stout, annual herb with cane-like stalks. Leaves of the hemp plant are palmate, flowers are small and greenish-yellow in color. In female plants, spike-like clusters grow on pistillate while on male plants they form branched clusters on staminate.
Hemp is an old cultivated plant that originated from central Asia and is considered extensive because of its medicinal uses, food, and fiber. The production of CBD from hemp is banned or declared illegal because it resembles a narcotic type of Cannabis. It has been noticed from the last two decades that most countries have legalized the production of the hemp plant that leads to a significant amount of research on hemp and hemp products concerning their health benefits .
Hemp-Derived Cannabidiol (CBD):
Hemp-Derived Cannabidiol (CBD) is isolated from an industrial hemp plant that was cultivated traditionally for its seeds and fiber. The hemp plant is different from the marijuana plant physically as they often have skinny and scarce foliage. The main difference that made hemp-derived CBD legal in contrast to marijuana-based is the level THC and also have intoxicating properties. According to U.S. law, a hemp plant does not contain more than 0.3% of THC .
Hemp-Derived CBD is now creating a big business. CBD is using in different products like beverages, clothing to food, cosmetics, supplements, and the pharmaceutical industry. It is presumed that CBD sales will rise to $20 billion by 2024 in the U.S alone .
CBD helps in treating several medical conditions that include post-traumatic stress disorder, epileptic seizures, inflammation, and anxiety. In the USA, CBD is encouraged in a wide range of consumer products but companies should mention that the obtained CBD is either marijuana or hemp-derived.
Hemp-derived CBD consumption in different products has increased its value in research fields. There is not enough data regarding its medical importance exists in the database.
Working of Hemp-Derived CBD:
All products of cannabinoids are capable of producing effects in the body by interacting with the receptors of cannabinoids (part of the endocannabinoid system).
There are two types of receptors produced by the body. These are:
- CB1 Receptors: these are present in the overall body, most specifically in brain cells. These receptors help in co-ordination during movement, pain, mood, emotion, appetite, memories, thinking, and other vital functions.
- CB2 Receptors: These receptors are mostly present in the immune system they affect pain and inflammation.
THC attaches to the CB1 receptors while CBD activates the receptors to signal the body to produce its cannabinoids.
Benefits of Hemp-Derived Cannabidiol (CBD):
The benefits of Hemp-Derived CBD are as follows:
- It has natural anti-inflammatory and pain relief properties.
- It helps in quitting the drug and smoking addicting activities.
- It also helps in overcoming epilepsy and seizure-related disorders.
- It relieves anxiety and helps in dealing with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
- It also helps in dealing with degenerating diseases like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s.
- It also helps patients with sleeping disorders.
- There are some other conditions where CBD is helpful like allergies, asthma, migraine, nausea, and many more .
Hemp-Derived CBD is an important naturally active chemical compound that is serving for the well-being of humanity. This compound has psychological effects. It was traditionally utilized to cure medical conditions for ages. There is enough ethnobotanical data that proves its traditional use and effectiveness yet there is a need for proper research on the compound to get the maximum benefits.